Laravel Design Pattern: Simplifying Web Development

Aman jain
8 min readJul 17, 2023

1. What are Design Patterns?

Software development’s recurrent issues can be solved through design patterns. They act as guidelines for writing organised, reusable code. Design patterns in the context of Laravel offer programmers a set of principles and best practises that guarantee the production of high-quality applications.

Here are some common design patterns used in Laravel:

-MVC Pattern

Laravel makes considerable use of the Model-View-Controller (MVC) design pattern, which is a key design principle. It divides the software programme into three related parts:

Model: The Model is a representation of the application’s data and business logic. It includes all business rules and validations, as well as procedures for accessing and manipulating data. Models are frequently developed in Laravel as classes that communicate with the underlying database or other data sources.

View:The display layer and user interface are handled by the view. It specifies how the user’s view of the application’s data should look. In Laravel, views are typically built as Blade templates, which give HTML output a strong and expressive syntax.

Controller:Between the Model and View, the Controller serves as a mediator. It responds to user queries, manages data processing, and refreshes the View as necessary. Through HTTP requests, controllers get user input, work with the model to get or change data, and then deliver the outcomes to the view for presentation. In Laravel, controllers are implemented as classes that specify different methods in line with specific application activities or routes.

-Repository Pattern

Another useful design pattern in Laravel is the Repository pattern. Between the business logic and the data source of the application, it offers a layer of abstraction. By encapsulating the data access logic and insulating the rest of the application from the specifics of the underlying data storage, the repository serves as a bridge.

Utilising the Repository pattern will enable you to centralise your data access logic and make switching between several data sources (such databases and APIs) simpler. The ability to construct mock repositories for unit testing makes this pattern more testable.

-Factory Pattern

The Factory pattern is a way to make creating objects easier. In Laravel, it’s often used with Dependency Injection to help create complex objects.

Using the Factory pattern allows you to separate the process of creating objects from the code that uses them. This makes it easier to change the specific objects you use without having to change a lot of code.

Overall, the Factory pattern helps make your code more flexible and modular by making object creation simpler and more organised.

-Singleton Pattern

Making ensuring a class has just one instance throughout the entire application is possible with Laravel’s Singleton approach. Managing shared resources or global setups is a frequent application of it.

You can manage access to these shared resources from one central area by using the Singleton design. Because to this, extraneous instance creation is prevented. Additionally, it makes it simple to transfer data between sections of your programme, promoting efficiency and consistency.

In Laravel, the Singleton pattern, which ensures that there is only one instance of a class, helps you stay organised by ensuring that data is consistent across your application and shared resources are managed.

-Observer Pattern

Objects can subscribe to events and receive notifications when those events are triggered using Laravel’s Observer pattern. The objects that send notifications and the objects that receive them can be separated using this technique.

You must first construct an observer class in Laravel before you can use the Observer pattern. The Observer interface, which has a single method named update(), will be implemented by this class. Every time an event that the observer has subscribed to is triggered, the update() method will be called.

Once an observer class has been developed, it may be registered with the Laravel event dispatcher. You can achieve this by invoking the event dispatcher’s attach() method and supplying the observer class as a parameter.

When an event is triggered, the event dispatcher will automatically call the update() method on all the subscribed observers. This allows the observers to react and take appropriate actions based on the event that occurred.

Here is an example of how to use the Observer pattern in Laravel:

class UserObserver implements Observer
{
public function update(Model $model)
{
if ($model->isDirty('email')) {
// Send an email to the user notifying them of their new email address.
}
}
}

$eventDispatcher->attach(User::class, new UserObserver());

// Trigger an event to notify the observers that a user's email address has been changed.
$user->email = 'new@email.com';
$user->save();

In this illustration, a class called UserObserver serves as a notification mechanism for observers when a user modifies their email address. The update() function in the UserObserver class is called each time the event connected to the User::class is activated. This allows the observer the chance to react to the event by taking steps like sending the user an email to let them know their updated email address.

-Strategy Pattern

To separate an object’s behaviour from its implementation in Laravel, utilise the Strategy pattern, a behavioural design pattern. This increases the code’s modularity and reusability and makes it simpler to alter an object’s behaviour during runtime.

Different caching strategies are frequently implemented in Laravel using the Strategy pattern. For instance, the IlluminateCacheRepository class implements many caching strategies, such as file caching and database caching, using the Strategy pattern.

You must first define a family of algorithms in order to use the Laravel strategy design. The same interface should be implemented by each algorithm. The next step is to build a context object that has a reference to a particular algorithm instance. The algorithm object completes the job that was delegated by the context object.

Here is an example of how the Strategy pattern can be used in Laravel to implement different caching strategies:

interface CacheStrategy
{
public function cache(string $key, $value);
}

class FileCacheStrategy implements CacheStrategy
{
public function cache(string $key, $value)
{
// Cache the value in a file.
}
}

class DatabaseCacheStrategy implements CacheStrategy
{
public function cache(string $key, $value)
{
// Cache the value in the database.
}
}

class CacheContext
{
private $cacheStrategy;

public function __construct(CacheStrategy $cacheStrategy)
{
$this->cacheStrategy = $cacheStrategy;
}

public function cache(string $key, $value)
{
return $this->cacheStrategy->cache($key, $value);
}
}

$cacheContext = new CacheContext(new FileCacheStrategy());
$cacheContext->cache('key', 'value');

// ...

The CacheStrategy interface in this illustration defines the standard interface for all caching techniques. The classes FileCacheStrategy and DatabaseCacheStrategy implement the CacheStrategy interface and offer several caching strategy implementations. One of the caching algorithms is represented by a reference in the CacheContext class. The caching strategy object, which actually does the caching, is given the task by the cache context class.

-Facades Pattern

A complicated subsystem’s interface is made simple and unified by the facade pattern. It conceals the underlying complexity and offers a straightforward user interface so that clients may communicate with the subsystem.

With the help of Laravel’s wide use of the Facade design, you may access different framework elements using a concise and expressive vocabulary. The learning curve for new engineers is lowered by this technique, which improves code readability.

You must first import the desired facade into Laravel before you can use the facade pattern. For instance, you would import the following code to use the Cache facade:

use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Cache;
Cache::put('key', 'value', 10);

-Adapter Pattern

A structural design pattern called the Adapter makes it possible for components with disparate interfaces to cooperate. This pattern is frequently applied when an existing object that you want to utilise has an interface that is incompatible with the interface you require.

The Adapter design is frequently used in Laravel to integrate with external APIs.

For instance, integrating with many HTTP APIs is possible using the GuzzleHttpClient class. The GuzzleHttpClient class differs from the Laravel API client in terms of interface. The GuzzleHttpClient class can be modified to work with the Laravel API client interface using the GuzzleAdapter class.

You must first develop an adapter class in order to use the Adapter pattern in Laravel. The interface you require will be implemented by the adapter class. After that, the adapter class will assign the task to the object it is adapting.

Here is an example of how the Adapter pattern can be used in Laravel to integrate with a third-party API:

interface ApiClient
{
public function get(string $url);
}

class GuzzleAdapter implements ApiClient
{
private $client;

public function __construct(GuzzleHttp\Client $client)
{
$this->client = $client;
}

public function get(string $url)
{
return $this->client->get($url);
}
}

$client = new GuzzleAdapter(new GuzzleHttp\Client());
$response = $client->get('https://example.com/api/v1/users');

GuzzleAdapter implements the ApiClient interface in this illustration. After that, the GuzzleAdapter class transfers the task to the GuzzleHttpClient class.

The following are some advantages of applying the Adapter design in Laravel:

  • Integration with external APIs is facilitated by this.
  • It increases the code’s modularity and reusability.
  • Your application’s performance may be enhanced by it.

The following are a few disadvantages of utilising the Adapter design in Laravel:

  • It might reduce the code’s transparency.
  • The code can be challenging to debug.
  • It might make the code harder to maintain.

Benefits of Design Patterns:

Code Reusability:Design patterns encourage code reuse, enabling you to make advantage of current solutions and cut down on duplicate code. This improves output and cuts down on development time.

Scalability: Your codebase becomes modular and versatile when you use design patterns. As your needs change, you can quickly adapt and scale your application.

Code Organisation:Design patterns help your code have a clear structure, which makes it simpler to comprehend and maintain. This results in better teamwork and quicker debugging.

Maintainability: By following design patterns, you can make sure that your code is well-organised and adheres to current standards. This makes maintenance easier and lessens the chance of adding bugs.

NOTE:

Design patterns may dramatically improve the overall quality, performance, and maintainability of your codebase when creating Laravel apps. Design patterns are useful resources that offer tested answers to typical problems in software development. While design patterns have many advantages, it is important to remember that they are not a foolproof solution to every problem. Before determining which design patterns to use, it is important to carefully evaluate the particular requirements of your application.

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